FISHES

FISHES

Teeth. Variations in the jaw spine may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jaw mouth. It is not clear if the advantage of obscure jaws is more biting strength, improved breathing, or a combination of any ingredients.

Fish can evolve from an animal like a coral-like ocean current, whose larvae are importantly similar to primitive fish. The first ancestors of fish left the larval form in their youth (as some beaches do today), but this is probably the opposite picture.

Classification formula

Fish is a paraphyletic group: it means that any fish contains all the fish that contain tetrapods, which are not fish. For this reason, groups such as the fish species seen in the old reference works are no longer used in formal classification.

The Ladycythis is the largest known fish in the subclass Actinoptergaei.

Dition The endemic classification divides fish into three existing classes, and with extinct forms sometimes classified into trees, sometimes as their own class: [10] [11]

Class Agnith (netless fish)

Subclass Cyclostomata (Hagfish and Lampress)

Subclass ostracodermy (armored netless fish).

Clond Chandrichthais (Cartilaginous fish)

Subclass Elasmobranchi (Shark and Ray)

Subclass Holocephaly (Chimeras and extinct relatives)

Class placoderma (armored fish).

Class akanthodii (“spiny shark”, sometimes classified under bone fish).

Class Osteoarthritis

Subclass Actinoptregy

Subclass sarcoparty (fleshy fine fish, ancestor of tetrapods)

The above scheme is most commonly seen among non-specialist and general works. Many of the above groups are paraphyletic, as they have given birth to successive groups: the Agnathanas are the ancestors of the Chandrichia, who in turn gave birth to the ancestor of the Ostethis, Acanthodia. With the advent of phylogenetic nomenclature, fish have been divided into more detailed schemes, with the following major groups:

Class Maxini (Hugfish)

Class Peterspidomorphy early (fish without fish at the beginning)

Class Theldonti.

Anaspida class

Class Petromizantida or Hyperortia

Petromizanti (Lampress)

Condonta class.

Class Cephalaspidomorphi early (early netless fish)

(Unprotected) Galaspida.

(Unprotected) Pituriaspida.

(Unprotected) Osteoarthritis.

Infraphilium ganathostomata (jaw spine)

Class Placodermae 6 (armored fish)

Clond Chandrichthais (Cartilaginous fish)

Class Acondodiai sp (cunning shark)

Superclass Osteichthyes

Clint actinoptregai (beaver fish)

Subclass Chandrostei

Order asymptomatic forms (starzones and paddlefish)

Order polypitiformes (redfish and beech).

Subclass Neopetergei

Infraclass Holocaust (Gars and Boffin)

Infraclass teleostei (many orders of conventional fish)

Class sarcoparty (lob-fine fish)

Subclass Actinistia (Koelenkethes)

Subclass Dipnoi (sister group on lungs, tetrapods)

† – Indicates extinct tokens

Some paleontologists claim that these are primitive fish because they are condonta cordates. For a complete treatment of this labor style, see the article on the spine.

Hugfish’s position in the film Chardata is not settled. Phylogenetic studies in 1999 and 1999 support the idea that Hugfish and Lampre form a natural group, the cyclostomata, a sister group of the ganothostomata. [12] [13]

Different fish groups make up more than half of the vertebrate species. There are about 26,000 endemic species, including about 2,000,000 bone fish, 97070 sharks, ray and chimera, and about 100 hogfish and lampreys. [14] One-third of this species belongs to the nine largest families; These families, from the largest to the smallest, are Cyprinidi, Gobidi, Cichlidi, Charactidi, Loricaride, Balitaridae, Seranidae, Labridi and Scorpenidae. About 4 families are monotypic, where there is only one species. The final total number of species could exceed 32,500. [15] Gas is exchanged using gills on both sides of most fish bones. The gills have a threadless structure called a filament. Each filament has a capillary network that provides a large surface area for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Fish exchange gases by drawing oxygen-rich water through their mouths and pumping them into their gills. In some fish the capillary blood flows against the water, causing a reciprocal exchange. The gills expel oxygen-weak water to the side of the alley. Some fish, such as sharks and lampreys, keep shaking multiple lakes. However, bone fish have a single gill open on each side. This opening is hidden behind a protective bone called an aperculum.

Adolescent beeches have external gills, a very primitive feature that they share with larval amphibians.






The term “fish” most precisely describes a non-tetrapod cranite (meaning a skull and, in most cases, a vertebrate) that lives throughout its life and whose limbs, if any, are wing-like [[1]] in groups such as birds or mammals. In contrast, fish are not a clade, but taxa paraphyletic collections, including hogfish, lampreys, sharks and ray, radiant fish, quellencanth and lungs. [18] [19] In fact, lungfish and quailcats are more common than re-finned fish or sharks. Mammals, birds, amphibians, etc.) are close relatives, so the last common ancestor of all fish is also the ancestor of tetropods. Since paraphyletic groups are no longer recognized in modern systemic biology, the use of the term “fish” as a biological group should be avoided.

Many types of aquatic animals are commonly called “fish” not fish in the above sense; Examples include shellfish, cattlefish, starfish, crayfish and jellyfish.[20] By definition, however, not all mammals, including whales and dolphins, including cetaceans, are fish. In some contexts, especially in aquatic farming, real fish are called finfish (or fin fish) to distinguish them from other animals.

A typical fish is ecothermic, has a well-formed body for quick swimming, uses gills to extract oxygen from the water, or uses an accessory respiratory organ to breathe atmospheric oxygen, has two sets of paired birds, usually one or two (rare three). It has a dorsal fins, a rectal fins, and a tail fin, has a jaw, has skin that is usually covered with fibers and lays eggs.

Each criterion has exceptions. cannot swim a length of 0.5 feet per second. [21] Many freshwater fish extract oxygen from the air as well as from water using a variety of different structures.as the corridorus expel oxygen through the intestines or stomach. [22] Body size and wing system are highly variable, covering seemingly un-fish species such as seahorses, pufferfish, angelfish, and gallopers. Similarly, the surface of the skin may be bare (like twisted inlays), or covered with a variety of different sizes, usually plaqueid (characterized by sharks and ray), cosmoids (lungfish and quelinkanth), ganoid (various fossils), and various fossils. Cycloids and stenoids (these last two are found in most bone fish) [23] There are even fish that live mostly on land or lay eggs in land near water. [24] Mudskippers feed and interact with each other on mudflats and go underwater to hide their aging. [25] A single, indescribable species of fretobias, known as a true “landfish” because these worm-like catfish are waterlogged. Many species live underground in lakes, underground rivers or wetlands, and are known as kafish fish. [2] [2]

Small to 8-millimeter (0.3-inch) scout infanfish from 16-meter (52-foot) whale sharks in size.

The diversity of fish species is almost equally divided between marine (marine) and freshwater ecosystems. The coral  especially in the Amazon, Congo and Mekong basins. More than 5,600 fish species live in neutropical new wetlands alone, as neutropical fish represent about 10% of all vertebrate species on Earth. Rich sites in the Amazon Basin, such as Canto State Park, may have more freshwater fish species than any other region in Europe. [29] Multiple groups of fish may be out of the water for extended periods of time. Unsuspecting fish, such as midskipers, can survive on land for several days, [suspicious – discussed) or in stagnant or oxygen depleted waters. Many fish of this species can breathe air through various processes. The skin of anguillas can absorb oxygen directly. The buccal cavity of the electric el can breathe air. Catfish in the family Lorrididae, Calicitheidae, and Scaloplasidae absorb air through their digestive tracts. 

Lay the surface to draw fresh air through the mouth and the air passed through the gills. Gar and Boffin have a vascularized swimming bladder that works similarly. Lochs, trahiras and many catfish breathe through the intestines. Moodskippers breathe by absorbing oxygen throughout the skin (like frogs). Several fish have developed so-called accessory respiratory organs that release oxygen from the air. Labyrinth fish (such as gourmis and betas) have a labyrinth organ on top of their shots that performs this function. A few other fish structures have similar structures in form and function to the maze organs, most notably the Snakeheads, Pikeheads and Claridi catfish families.

The use of fish that live in shallow, seasonally variable waters where the oxygen concentration of the water may decrease, to fish. Fish rely solely on dissolved oxygen, such as perch and cichlids, which suffocate quickly, while air-breathing problems survive longer, in some cases in water. A little more than clay. Finally, some air-breathing fish are able to survive in damp aging for weeks without water, entering a state of excitement (summer hibernation) until the water returns.

Air breathing fish can be divided into obligatory air breathing and accompanying air breathing. Like the African lungfish, the air breathing must be inhaled or their breath stopped. Sensitive air breathing difficulties such as catfish hypostomas placostomas only breathe the air they need and otherwise rely on their gills for oxygen. Most air-breathing fish are flattened air breathing that avoids the exorbitant cost of rising to the surface and the fitness cost of exposure to surface predators. [30] Fish usually have a much smaller brain size than other vertebrates, typically birds of the same size or mammals. [32] However, some fish have relatively large brains, notably marmiraids and sharks, which have relative brains relative to body weights, such as birds and marsupials.

The fish brain is divided into different regions. On the front are the olfactory lobes, a pair of structures that receive and process signals from the nostrils through two olfactory nerves. [32] Olfactory lobes are very large in fish that prey mainly on odors, such as hogfish, sharks and catfish. Behind the olfactory lobes is a two-layered ternsifalon, equivalent to the structure of the cerebrum in the upper spine. In fish, ternsfallon is most concerned with friction. [32] Together these structures form the forebrain.

The forebrain is attached to the midbrain by the dynephalon (in the diagram, this structure is below the optic lobe and consequently not visible). The body of the pineal is located just above the dynephalon, performing the functions associated with dynephalon hormones and homeostasis. [[32] This structure detects light, maintains circadian rhythms, and controls color changes. [[32]

The midbrain (or meniscephalon) has two optic lobes. These are very large in species that hunt by sight, such as rainbow trout and seaweed ids. [32]

The cerebellum is a single vertical structure that typically involves the largest part of the brain [[32], the cerebellum, which is relatively small compared to hagfish and lampreys, although the mermaid cerebellum is large and sparse. [32]

The brain stem (or mylesnaphalon) controls some of the muscles and body parts in the bone marrow, [32] at least in bone marrow, as well as the brain stem conducts respiratory distress and astrogulation. [32] Most fish have highly developed sense organs. Almost all daylight fish have a colorful vision that is at least as good as human (see vision in fish). Many fish contain chemoceptors that are responsible for the extraordinary sensations of taste and smell. Even though they have ears, many fish cannot hear very well. . [34] Some fish, such as catfish and sharks, have Lorenzini’s ampoule, the electroresceptor binds to electrolyte . [35] Other American fish, such as South American electric fish zymotifarms, can generate weak electric currents that they use for navigation and social communication.

Fish orient themselves using landmarks and can use mental maps based on multiple landmarks or symbols. The behavior of fish in Magee suggests that they possess spatial memory and visual acuity. [3] Vision is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish eyes are like terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have more rounded lenses. Their retinas usually contain both rods and cones (for scotic and photopic vision) and most species have color. Can see some fish Some fish can see ultraviolet and some polarized light. In fish without nets, the eyes of the lamprey are well developed, while the hagfish have only the initial eye patches.

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